So you have a fine set of MARC21 records? Let's find out how to produce an even nicer set of EDM records out of them!
In 2011, a group of library professionals gathered to discuss how the Europeana Data Model fit library data needs. The group wanted to understand how a mapping of traditional library metadata records correlated to the three principle EDM structures (edm:ProvidedCHO, edm:WebResource, ore:Aggregation).
Since EDM is an RDF-based model, the records had to be viewed as being made up of a set of separate statements which could then be redistributed across the EDM classes. In order to support this process, a model was created defining which EDM classes would be used in the library context, the relations between them, and the EDM properties chosen to describe these relations. Europeana is currently implementing only a subset of the EDM properties defined in the main EDM specification. In this course, we’ll focus mainly on the Europeana Data Model for monographs.
In the traditional library world, the description of objects (books, journals etc.) is record-based. Such a record, which can be seen as a closed box, is a defined set of description elements that can include information about:
In contrast to this closed box model, the Europeana Data Model is a statement-based model - the description of library objects covers separate entities and their relationships on different abstract levels. In this world we therefore differentiate between:
And we interlink these entities and express these links with RDF statements.
Mapping a traditional metadata record to EDM therefore means that the closed box has to be opened, the record will be taken apart and the different entities described in one record will be identified as EDM classes and related to each other.
For more details please read the deliverable of the Europeana Libraries project.
The following is a quick recap on the core classes of EDM.
The edm:ProvidedCHO is the cultural heritage object which has given rise to and is the subject of the package of data that has been submitted to Europeana. Its properties are those of the original cultural heritage object. Strictly speaking, the edm:ProvidedCHO is the resource in Europeana that relate to the original cultural heritage object not its digital representation, for example attributes of the Mona Lisa, not the digitised image of the paintining.
EDM defines edm:Web Resource as ‘information resources that have at least one web representation and at least a URI.’ In this model, the edm:WebResource is a digital representation of an item (e.g. of a printed resource or a born-digital resource). All information about a representation – whether it is born-digital or digitized – has to be provided using an instance of the class edm:WebResource.
The ore:Aggregation serves to group together all important elements of cultural heritage objects contributed by the content providers. Aggregations are used in EDM to represent the complex constructs that are provided by contributors. In compliance with EDM, the fundamental relationships between edm:WebResource and edm:ProvidedCHO are realized by using the ore:Aggregation class. This is the place where the metadata relating to this whole object will be recorded
As mentioned throughout this course, all the classes and properties, the data types that can be used as values and the obligation level of each property are described extensively in the EDM Mapping Guidelines. These guidelines are to be found on the Europeana Data Model Documentation page and should serve as guidance for providers wanting to map their data to EDM. Those interested can find there an example of original data, the same data converted to EDM and diagrams showing the distribution of the properties amongst the classes. The mapping guidelines should be consulted frequently as the full set of EDM classes and properties are being implemented incrementally.
Next, we'll present a mind map of actual MARC21 fields that could be assigned to respective EDM fields and classes. Following that we have a practical example from the National Library of Serbia of creating EDM from their MARC21 records. At the end of the section, we'll take to a more visual trip to see how an object from a library shelf becomes a presence in Europeana.
Please note, that the examples presented here are to serve as guidance and support, and might not always match your data manipulation needs.
When mapping, libraries can use different tools that allow data manipulation. In this section, Petar Popovic from National Library of Serbia presents his practical experience.
Conclusions from the presentation:
To conclude our course, we are now taking you on the journey an object has to make before it appears in Europeana Collections.
This lesson explains how the metadata for a playbill of the Debrecen Theatre are catalogued and captured in MARC21. It then illustrates the mapping to EDM and the transformation of that EDM record during the publishing process. At the end, you will see where in Europeana Collections you can find the various elements that were created during the digitization, cataloguing, mapping and transformation process of that playbill.
If you are interested in looking at the chosen object more closely, you can find it in Europeana Collections and you can also see the raw metadata (MARC21, EDM, EDM enriched).
Lastly, you are invited to read the documentation below to understand how the library domain professionals have understood and created the crosswalk between library specific metadata and the Europeana Data Model, please have a read at the links below:
This online course on EDM would not have been possible without the guidance and inspiration of the following contributors:
Valentine Charles, Cécile Devarenne (Europeana) - In house EDM gurus
Antoine Isaac, Nuno Freire (Europeana) - EDM cheerleader and Libraries Data aficionado
Uldis Zariņš (National Library of Latvia), Henning Scholz, Pierre-Edouard Barrault and Adina Ciocoiu (Europeana) - Content creators
Uldis Zariņš (National Library of Latvia), Pierre-Edouard Barrault, Maike Dulk (Europeana) - Video editors
Petar Popović (National Library of Serbia) - Case study contributor & EDM lab mouse
Beth Daley (Europeana) - Text proofreading
Thank you very much for your support and participation!