On the past 23rd May, the last Business Model Workshop was organised in Helsinki, at the Media Lab of the Aalto University. In the same fashion as the other editions, the aim was to trigger a discussion on how to develop a business model that underpins and encapsulates the successful reuse of digital cultural heritage content like in this case via Europeana -this time as far as Design-specific applications are concerned.

The business models were related to the concepts identified in the co-creation workshop, which preceded the organisation of the business model one. The projects which presented the best potential were further explored, and translated into viable products or services.

A business model refers to how value is created, delivered and captured within an organisation point of view. Value takes several forms such as cultural, economic, social, environmental, etc. (thus not being limited to a common perspective that refers only to for profit businesses). It can be developed not only within organisations but also specific projects, products or services.

This specific workshop resorted to the business model canvas methodology to provide a framework and a guideline on how the “Design” pilot can be explored in a sustainable way, while at the same time provide “inspiration” for the challengers.

An expert on business modelling was invited to guide and support discussions. Jukka Ojasalo (adjuct professor at AALTO University) introduced the Service Logic Business Model Template, an own developed version of the original Business Model Canvas by Osterwalder and Pigneur. The Service Logic Template emphasises a deeper understanding of implicit and explicit customer needs. According to the author, the focus of this canvas is strongly on the perspective of the customer, and not on the company.

The business canvas that was used for this workshop takes into account 9 elements:

  • Customer’s World and Desire for Ideal Value
  • Value Proposition
  • Co-creating value with the customer
  • Interaction and co-production
  • Key Resources
  • Key Partners
  • Mobile Resources and Partners
  • Cost structure
  • Revenue Streams and Metrics

Source: Ojasalo, Katri and Jukka Ojasalo (forthcoming 2014), “Adapting Business Model Thinking to Service Logic: An Empirical Study on Developing a Service Design Tool,” in The Nordic School – Alternative Perspectives on Marketing and Service Management,

3 prototypes were developed after the co-creation workshop using the Service Logic Business Model Template:

  • Pattern Gems: through this prototype service, professional-amateurs in design can find high quality reusable images which can inspire them to create and share new patterns for clothing, furniture, interior design etc. that are printable on a broad range of different design products (e.g. chair, wallpaper, T-shirts, jackets);

  • eFab: this prototype offers an environment for designers, DIYers and students to make Europeana content digitally "makeable" by use of 3D-printers and laser cutter. The final product - the digitally fabricated object - can be used for for example decoration, to build theater stages or to sell in museum shops.

  • Collage: this prototype is a customisable online tool and mobile application targeted at a general public and design professionals that allows new masterpieces to be created from the reuse of works of art, in a fun and pedagogical way. Europeana content can be accessed, transformed and placed for public viewing and rating. Own creations can also be uploaded and used to mix heritage and new content.

As an example of the very interesting thought process in the workshop, a business model called “Pattern Gems: Create your own patterns from vintage images” was developed.

Pattern Gems’ business model can be translated as a service targeted at professional-amateurs (Pro-ams) in design/creators/makers; students, amateurs that like to create patterns and have the ambition to go from amateur to professional level. Designers are offered a very smart search tool (enabling search on similarity, color, forms etc.) through which they can search through inspirational Europeana content (example collections, e.g. high quality cut-outs of butterflies from different paintings).

The revenue is generated by sharing sales of design patterns with registered designers. It also liaises with external related services that are already on the market, like platforms where fabrics can be ordered and professional tools and services that you can use to mask and cut images (e.g. Adobe InDesign).

View of the filled-in Service Logic Business Model Template

By Liam Wyatt, Europeana GLAM-Wiki Coordinator

Galleries, libraries, museums and archives (GLAMs) can now make their digital content visible in Wikipedia articles more easily than ever before with the new GLAMwiki Toolset built by Europeana.

Several years in development, this tool gives cultural organisations the ability to mass-upload their own images, videos and sound recordings to Wikimedia Commons in the same way that they have done with other platforms like Flickr for years. For the first time GLAMs can mass-upload content without needing bespoke software, without external assistance required, with their own metadata, and at their own pace.

Piazza di Monte Citorio, Rome, Italy, Library of Congress, available on Wikimedia Commons. Public Domain

Once multimedia is uploaded to Wikimedia Commons, it becomes available to all 287 language editions of Wikipedia. Images, videos and sound recordings are displayed in the immediate context of encyclopedic knowledge, adding to the understanding of that content in a non-commercial and neutral space. And, being the 5th most visited website in the world means that this material can be viewed in its new educational context by a far larger audience than ever before. With the tailored attribution that the new tool provides, Wikipedia readers wanting to learn more are only two clicks away from visiting the home institution’s website. Many GLAMs already report that Wikipedia-derived traffic is one of the most important providers of inbound traffic, sharing multimedia increases that flow dramatically. You can see the image view statistics for GLAM collections on Wikipedia for yourself!

The launch of this tool is just the beginning. In the coming months, Europeana will help to introduce its GLAM partners to their local Wikimedia community so that the newly uploaded content can begin being used to illustrate Wikipedia articles in as many languages as possible. Recently, the Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid (Dutch Institute for Sound and Vision) became the first cultural organisation to directly take advantage of this new tool, uploading 500 videos from birds in the Netherlands, generously donated by Stichting Natuurbeelden (the Foundation for Nature Footage).

Lepelaar in goud licht bij zonsondergang, Natuur Digitaal (Marc Plomp); Stichting Natuurbeelden, CC BY-SA

Within just one week, the Wikimedia community has responded to the challenge - translated titles, added appropriate categories and placed almost half of the videos in Wikipedia articles. One dedicated Wikipedian, Taketa, has already ensured that this video of a Eurasian Spoonbill is used to illustrate over 50 languages!

Material from several other cultural organisations from around the world have also already found their way onto Wikimedia Commons, and thereby to Wikipedia articles, thanks to the tireless efforts of the Wikimedia Community. For example Fae, a volunteer Wikimedian in London, has already uploaded 12,000 maps from the New York Public Library, 10,000 Photocrom prints from the Library of Congress, 2,000 images of Japanese art from the Rijksmuseum and 130,000 photographs from the Historical American Buildings Survey (a collection planned to reach 250,000 over the the next few weeks) with this tool - all beautifully digitised by the respective GLAMs and now available to be used in Wikipedia. Many other large collections are in various stages of upload with more arriving all the time.

The GLAMwiki Toolset has been developed and funded in partnership with four national Wikimedia chapters (UK, the Netherlands, France and Switzerland) and Europeana. Europeana works to make European culture accessible to all, and encourages the re-use of public domain digital content by researchers, educators, the creative industries and the wider public. The tool fulfills this objective by helping GLAMs to share their appropriately licensed content with Wikipedia users and disseminate valuable digital items of cultural heritage.

If you have a collection of digitised and freely-licensed multimedia and are interested in making it available to a global audience, please get in touch with us. Or, if you’d like to get started directly follow the instructions on the Beeld en Geluid blogpost, or on the documentation page.

By Paul Keller, Kennisland

On 4 July, Scottish-American law scholar James Boyle called on cultural heritage institutions to focus on providing everyone with as broad as possible access to public domain material. Boyle is the director of the Center for the study of the Public Domain at Duke Law school and author of The Public Domain. In his lecture he explains  that ‘this is worthwhile not merely because it is the right thing to do’ but also because it ‘will yield all kinds of benefits which are very hard for us to see right now’.

As custodians of our shared cultural heritage, institutions serve one of the most noble causes there is and he called on them to preach their principles louder. For Boyle, this is not only important to ensure that cultural heritage does not gets locked away by the unintended consequences of of copyright laws that were not designed for the cultural heritage 2.0, but also in order to more forcefully make the case for more funding from public and private sources. Boyle’s full lecture, and the debate that followed can now be seen online.

Kennisland, CC-BY

This lecture was followed by a reaction by Marjan Hammersma from the Dutch Ministry of Education Culture and Science, and a question & answer session with Boyle and Hammersma.

Kennisland, CC-BY

The event was hosted by Kennisland and the Rijksmuseum in collaboration with Europeana and the  Institute for Information Law.

This article was written as part of Europeana’s #PublicDomainMonth - a month dedicated to sharing knowledge, best practices and events all related to the Public Domain.  You can read and share the full Public Domain Charter. You can also get involved by following #PublicDomainMonth and @EuropeanaIPR on Twitter.

By Joris Pekel, Europeana Community Coordinator Cultural Heritage

At this week´s Open Knowledge Festival, Europeana together with the OpenGLAM initiative and Dutch think tank Kennisland ran a workshop to discuss how to maintain a healthy and thriving public domain of cultural heritage. The festival ran from 15-16 July in Berlin, and was attended by more than 1000 people from all over the world who gathered to talk about open data, transparency, development and many other topics.


The principles of a healthy and thriving Public Domain are established in the Europeana Public Domain Charter, as essential to the social and economic wellbeing of society.(You can read our Introduction to this here). During this workshop we explored how cultural institutions can work towards maintaining the public domain as a valuable source of knowledge.

The session started with Kennisland’s Paul Keller presenting the difficulties for institutions to define if an object is in the public domain or not. Thanks to complex international, European and national copyright laws, calculating when an object is in the public domain ranges from simple to the complex. Cultural heritage institutions, who are required to make decisions based on copyright, do not typically employ copyright law experts. This lack of clarity combined with lack of very specific expertise can often result in an organisational policy, which restricts the use of digital objects by incorrectly claiming copyright allows them to do so.

If we stick with the strict interpretation of law, we run the risk of losing access to valuable cultural heritage material. So when should exceptions be ok? Paul went on to present a number of case studies where it is debatable whether this type of  organisational policy is acceptable or not, such as the recent release from the Wellcome Library, where over 100.000 images were made available in high quality using the Creative Commons Attribution Licence. While on the one hand it is applauded that these images are made available for anyone to use in an open way, it does not acknowledge that the material is out of copyright, and therefore cannot be made available under a copyright licence. For more details see the presentation slides below.



As we delve deeper into the issues, we turned to look at the application of copyright law itself. Thomas Margoni from the Institute for Information Law in Amsterdam presented his ongoing research, which queries when a digital reproduction of an existing (protected or unprotected by copyright) object gives rise to a new object that can claim copyright and/or related rights. This research reviews EU laws to address the  different ways in which legal exceptions are applied. The preliminary results are available in the slides below.



The many exceptions in the different European Member States make it difficult to come to a common approach. This is a challenge for both the cultural sector, as well as the organisations that work towards more openly available cultural content on the web. Would applying  CC-BY licence be acceptable in order to make beautiful material, that was previously unavailable to the public, available online? Or should organisations like Europeana take a firm stand against this? One idea proposed in the workshop was an ‘Open GLAM Scorecard’ for open datasets which can be used to rank the set. This way it can be acknowledged that an institution is doing good work, but it can also be used to point out things that could be done better in order to receive a full green status of ‘open’. 

This workshop was the kickoff of the broader discussion. In the coming period these ideas will be further explored with the wider GLAM community to see of this would work, and if so, how the ranking should be done. If you are interested in this discussion please join the mailing list. All the notes taken during the session can be found here.

This article was written as part of Europeana’s #PublicDomainMonth - a month dedicated to sharing knowledge, best practices and events all related to the Public Domain.  You can read and share the full Public Domain Charter. You can also get involved by following #PublicDomainMonth and @EuropeanaIPR on Twitter.

By Neil Bates, Marketing Specialist and Julia Fallon, IPR and Policy Advisor 
Image: Etude d'une tête humaine, vue de face by Lequeu, Jean Jacques (1757-1825). French National Library (Public Domain). 
Here at Europeana we love to promote our partners’ collections. Those that are labeled as public domain and include high-resolution images have proven to excite thousands of culture hungry followers on the Europeana blog and through our social media channels. Highlighting these great images, and increasing their reach by sharing them in as many places as possible reinforces one of our objectives described in Europeana Strategy 2020; we “want to reach people through the channels that they are already already familiar with such as Wikipedia, Pinterest, and use social media so that our heritage becomes part of popular discourse”
Best practices for attributing works in the Public Domain 
It is really important when we share these images we attribute the objects correctly to ensure that users know where they originate from. The Europeana Usage Guidelines for public domain works set out eight core values that we follow when sharing works that are in the public domain. 
- Give credit where credit is due
- Protect the reputation of creators and providers
- Show respect for the original work
- Show respect for the creator
- Share knowledge
- Be culturally aware
- Support efforts to enrich the public domain
- Preserve public domain marks and notices
Our experience and these guidelines have taught us that when possible, for all of the works we share online including those in the public domain, we credit the institution (such as the archive, museum or library) that provided the work, credit the creator or provider on behalf of the creator, mention that the work is in the public domain, and finally provide a link back to the original source for the work (usually Europeana). 
However, we also know that it is not always possible to take a consistent approach to attribution across a large number of platforms. Especially when each platform has its own limitations or methods, for example the limited character length on Twitter. So when all else fails, we provide a link to the original source as the attribution, ensuring that the link provides the user with credits for the institution and creator.
There are tools that can help 
If you are working in an environment where you have the possibility to include HTML code, such as on a Wordpress blog, there are tools out there that can assist you with using the Public Domain Mark (PDM) in the best possible way. For example, Creative Commons PDM tool enables you to create a label to assign to the work you are sharing, allowing the work to be easily discovered while at the same time providing valuable information about the work. As with other Creative Commons licenses, the PDM mark is available as a machine readable version, this will include important information on the key freedoms and obligations written into a format that software systems, search engines, and other kinds of technology can understand. 
This article was written as part of Europeana’s #PublicDomainMonth - a month dedicated to sharing knowledge, best practices and events all related to the Public Domain. You can read and read and share the full Europeana Usage Guidelines for public domain works, also you can get involved by following #PublicDomainMonth and @EuropeanaIPR on Twitter. 

RSS (Opens New Window)
Showing 1 - 5 of 100 results.
of 20


The Europeana Professional Blog is for people working in the field of digital cultural heritage. For more information or to contribute, contact susan.muthalaly@europeana.eu.

RSS (Opens New Window)